Referencing for Final Media & Culture Presentation

[1] IMDB <; [Accessed 14th February 2013]

[2] IMDB <; [Accessed 14th February 2013]

[3] IMDB <; [Accessed 14th February 2013]

[4] Jowy Romano, Subway Art Blog, <> April 20th 2010 [Accessed 15th February 2013]

[5] [6] Richard Sandler, Article Author: Caroline Smith, <;, August 3 2011 [Accessed 15th February 2013]

[7] World Press Photo,  <; [Accessed 15th February 2013]

[8] All That is Interesting, <; 22nd January 2012, [Accessed 15th February 2013]

The Art Story, David Kupperberg, <; [Accessed 15th February 2013]


Research into the genre of films


Alfred Hitchcock’s Psycho is a suspense/ horror film released in 1960. Films that fall into the genre of suspense, also known as a ‘thriller’ focus on the use tension and excitement. This creates anticipation, uncertainty, surprise, anxiety and terror among audiences. Two sub genres that could be applied to Psycho are psychological and mystery thrillers. Psychological thrillers focus on the unstable mental state of particular characters, in this case, the audience will be aware that something is not quite right about Norman Bates from an early point in the film. Mystery thrillers focus on the unraveling of a crime and while watching ‘Psycho’ the audience will be attempting to piece together the happenings in the motel.

Back to the Future

The Back to the Future trilogy lands in the science fiction genre. Science fiction is described as ‘science-based depictions of phenomena that are not necessarily accepted by mainstream science’. The main sub genre that can be applied to Back to the Future is that of Space/Time travel. As the main focus of the film is time travel, which is clearly not currently possible in today’s world, therefore it could be described as involving ‘depictions of phenomena that are not necessarily accepted by mainstream science’. The film definitely gives the audience a temporary escape from reality and desire for the futuristic lifestyle of the main character Marty McFly.

Jurassic Park  

The Jurassic Park trilogy falls into the genre of adventure combined with science fiction. Adventure films are known for their exploration of exotic locations in an energetic way.  Jurassic Park could also be classified as a science fiction film because of its focus on genetic experimentation of dinosaurs. The common sub genre related to science fiction films of ‘Lost worlds’ can be applied to the Jurassic Park, as the main focus of the film is the character’s intentions to re-establish the pre-historic world of dinosaurs.

500 days of Summer

500 Days of Summer is a romance film. Some typical traits of films that come under this genre are those of love, passion, emotion and affection.  The fact that the main plot focus in this film is that of the relationship between the two main characters and the obstacles they need to overcome also contributes to the classification of 500 Days of Summer into the romantic genre. The scene in which Tom and Summer meet in the elevator could be seen as being a traditional ‘love at first sight’ moment, which are very common in this genre. Some sub genres evident are those of drama and comedy. An example of definition found to describe dramatic films is “A film genre that depends mostly on in-depth development of realistic characters dealing with emotional themes.” As the situation between Summer and Tom is quite relatable, 500 Days of Summer could be described as a dramatic romance.

Research- The Austerity Issue- Jerome Roos

Jérôme Roos is a writer, activist and filmmaker. He studied at University College Utrecht, the University of Bologna, Sciences Po Paris and the London School of Economics, and is currently a PhD Researcher on the European Debt Crisis at the European University Institute in Florence. He is the founder and editor of Reflections on a Revolution (ROAR) , an online magazine.

Set of photographs reflecting riot police cracking down on anti- austerity protests in Athens, Greece in June 2011, where anarchists have chosen to fight. Raiding Golden Dawn offices and riding through poor neighbourhoods in thousands-strong anti-fascist motorcycle rallies, the Greek anarchists are now greeted as heroes by the city’s terrorised immigrant minority.

A set of photographs taken in Tahir, Egypt in January 2013 whilst protesters continue the revolution that began two years ago. Many feel anarchism provides the only alternative to further tyranny, the demonstation has been the greatest revolution since 1848.

Research- A Journey

A journey… 

Rather than choosing images that display your typical journey, I chose to look further, choosing these three images that show not only the massive physical journey ahead, but also the mental voyage ahead.

 These three photographs were taken as the rescue and recovery effort began after the horrific terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York on the morning of September 11th 2001.

 Finding these photographs on the Internet, neither had a description, or any type of explanation at all, but to me it is not particularly necessary. Both of these images reflect the enormous rescue and clean up efforts by the extremely brave emergency services of New York City.

 On the morning of September 11th, the New York City Fire Department deployed 200 units, which is half of their whole department, to the site of the World Trade Center, 400 fire-fighters were on the scene. The NYPD and Port Authority Police officers on the site were both given orders to evacuate, leaving the FDNY to conduct the rescue of civilians alone. Due to loss of contact through a number of radio difficulties, many fire-fighters did not receive evacuation orders even after the first tower had collapsed, resulting in a traumatic loss of life for 343 of those fire- fighters brave enough to enter the buildings.

 In the moment these photographs were captured, New York’s emergency services would not have known the scale of this operation, which would take 8 months to complete. The short term goals of these fire-fighters was to evacuate every single person from the buildings, in the following days these goals then changed into recovering the bodies of those who had unfortunately passed to give their grieving families sorrow, but also relief. Many of the workers of this rescue and recovery effort still suffer to this day, both physically and mentally. Not only do these three photographs represent a physical struggle to sift through the massive amount of debris, but it also reflects the mental journey through dealing with the colossal trauma for years to come.

Photographs that tell a story- Elliot Erwitt’s ‘Segregated Water Fountains’

Photographs that tell a story- Elliot Erwitt’s ‘Segregated Water Fountains’

This photograph was taken by Elliot Erwitt in 1950 in North Carolina, USA, and represents the injustice of segregation of black and white people in America during this time.

At the time the image was an example of how much things needed to change, now we see this photograph we can see how much times have changed and to reflect on the past. The interesting thing about this photograph is that we don’t necessarily need to know any background information. The photograph itself tells the story. The ‘white’ water fountain is visibly more luxurious than the ‘colored’. We can therefore see straight away that the image is simply evidence of controversial inequality. We can see on the man’s face him glancing almost longingly at the ‘white’ fountain.

Discrimination in America took a turn for the worse after the Civil War and segregation was becoming increasingly apparent. When the U.S. joined WWII the southern society was fully segregated.  Everything from schools, restaurants, hotels, train cars, waiting rooms, elevators, public bathrooms, colleges, hospitals, cemetery, swimming pools, drinking fountains, prisons, and even churches had separate areas for whites and blacks.

The civil rights movement enforced legislations and organised efforts to abolish the segregation of African Americans and other ethnic minorities between 1954-1968, 4 years after Elliot Erwitt took this photograph.–-the-work-of-elliott-erwitt/

Research- Social Commentary- 2wenty’s “Social Cigarettes”

Social Commentary- 2wenty’s “Social Cigarettes”

This poster, designed by LA street artist ‘2wenty’, is a good example of social comment. The comparison of social network Facebook to cigarettes reflects how the site is a cultural addiction with ‘600 million smokers’ and is now a massive part of society. The piece has given the 30 year old artist widespread attention from a number of galleries across the world after appearing across the streets of LA.

2wenty gave reasoning for his piece “I make pieces about what’s bothering me. People are always on Facebook at work and while walking down the street.” “I hope the pieces make people notice their addiction to Facebook.” Though admits the irony is that I’m on Facebook all the time, too.”

The comparison of a website to a drug may seem a bit over zealous, however it is becoming increasingly evident that social networks, and the internet in general, have people hooked and without checking their networks every so often, feel deprived.

The piece has become so popular among the public that mock Facebook cigarette packets are now available to buy online, a replica of that displayed in galleries across the world. The 3-D version includes a mock surgeon general’s warning that cautions: “Facebook may cause loss of time, poor work ethic, obesity, social disorder and possible interference of destiny.”

Research- Propaganda- James Montgomery Flagg’s “Uncle Sam” Recruitment Poster

Propaganda Research- James Montgomery Flagg’s Uncle Sam Recruitment Poster


This piece of propaganda was created by James Montgomery Flagg in 1917 and was a poster to encourage recruitment in the United States Army during World War I. It showed Uncle Sam pointing at the viewer with the caption “I Want YOU for U.S. Army”. Over four million copies of the poster were printed during World War I and it has been named “the most famous poster in the world”.

 Flagg’s poster was inspired by Alfred Leete’s 1914 British war poster, which featured the Secretary of State for War, Lord Kitchener, pointing his finger and declaring “Your Country Needs YOU.”

 Preferring to work with a live model as inspiration, Flagg himself donned a hat and fake beard to serve as the model for Uncle Sam to save the hassle of hiring a model.

 Uncle Sam is one of the most popular personifications of the United States. However it’s origin is still somewhat unknown. Some historians associate the name with a meat packer who supplied meat to the army during the War of 1812 and was seen to be a man of great fairness, reliability, and honesty, who was devoted to his country, qualities now associated with the typical idol of “Uncle Sam”.

Research- Manipulation of Surrealism


The Disintegration of the Persistence of Memory

An oil on canvas re-creation of the artist’s famous 1931 work The Persistence of Memory,

it was originally known as The Chromosome of a Highly-coloured Fish’s Eye Starting the Harmonious Disintegration of the Persistence of Memory, and first exhibited at the Carstairs Gallery in New York in 1954.

In this version, the landscape from the original work has been flooded with water. The plane and block from the original is now divided into brick-like shapes that float in relation to each other, with nothing binding them. These represent the breakdown of matter into atoms, a revelation in the age of quantum mechanics. Behind the bricks, the horns receding into the distance symbolise atomic missiles, highlighting that despite cosmic order, humanity could bring about its own destruction. The dead olive tree from which the soft watch hangs has also begun to break apart. The hands of the watches float above their dials, with several conical objects floating in parallel formations encircling the watches. A fourth melting watch has been added. The distorted human visage from the original painting is beginning to morph into another of the strange fish floating above it. To Dalí, however, the fish was a symbol of life.


Dalí had been greatly interested in nuclear physics since the first atomic bomb explosions of August 1945, and described the atom as his “favourite food for thought”. To Dalí, this image was symbolic of the new physics—the quantum world which exists as both particles and waves. The imagery of the original Persistence of Memory can be read as a representation of Einstein’s theory of relativity (although Dalí himself denied the connection to the theory), symbolizing the warping of spacetime by gravity. Soft Construction with Boiled Beans (Premonition of Civil War) (1936) is a painting by Spanish Surrealist Salvador Dalí. Dali made this painting to represent the horrors of the Spanish Civil War. Dali painted this 6 months before the Spanish Civil War had even begun and then claimed that he had known the war was going to happen in order to appear to have prophet-like abilities due to “the prophetic power of his subconscious mind.” Dali may have changed the name of the painting after the war in a manner of proving this prophetic quality, though it is not entirely certain.


This is a painting made with oil on canvas that is located in the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Dali painted it in 1936, but there were studies found of it that dated back to 1934.[2] It is a picture of a geometric monster type creature and connected to a similar monster. The two creatures appear to be two parts of the same creature so that it appears to be wrestling itself. All over the background and on parts of the monster are boiled beans that look like they are melting. The monster stands on trees and a brown wooden box.

Salvador Dalí and the Spanish Civil War

Dalí and his wife, Gala, were trapped in the middle of a general strike and an armed uprising by Catalan separatists in 1934, in Catalonia, and this may have influenced his Spanish Civil War motif. Salvador and Gala had to run away to Paris, where they actually got married. Dalí and Gala had hired an escort to take them safely to Paris, but the escort died on his return because of the stresses of the Spanish Civl War. When Dalí had finally returned home, his house in Port Lligat was destroyed by the war. He was also greatly affected because his friend was executed in the war and his sister Ana Maria was imprisoned and tortured.


This painting expresses the destruction during the Spanish Civil War. The monster in this painting is self destructive just as a Civil War is.This painting is not meant to depict choosing sides although Dali had many reasons to choose sides in the Spanish Civil War. His sister was tortured and imprisoned by communist soldiers fighting for the Republic and his good friend from art school was murdered by a fascist firing squad Dali also made this painting look very realistic and yet continued to bring in surreal concepts. Although humans do not have the potential to look like the creatures in this painting, it retains a realistic feel, reminding the viewer of the levitity of the ideas behind it. Dali also brought ideas of tradition to this piece with a beautiful Catalonian sky, creating contrast to the idea of revolution. There are many boiled beans in this painting. Dali is quoted as saying the reason he included boiled beans was “one could not imagine swallowing all that unconscious meat without the presence of some mealy and melancholy vegetable.”By this he meant that there were many hardships in the war so the Spanish citizens had to do their best to deal with their problems. He played with themes of love, eating, and the war and how they are all related.


Dalí, Salvador (1904-89): Spanish painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and designer. After passing through phases of Cubism, Futurism and Metaphysical painting, he joined the Surrealists in 1929 and his talent for self-publicity rapidly made him the most famous representative of the movement. His paintings employed a meticulous academic technique that was contradicted by the unreal `dream’ space he depicted and by the strangely hallucinatory characters of his imagery. He described his pictures as `hand-painted dream photographs’ and had certain favorite and recurring images, such as the human figure with half-open drawers protruding from it, burning giraffes, and watches bent and flowing as if made from melting wax.

In 1937 Dalí visited Italy and adopted a more traditional style; this together with his political views (he was a supporter of General Franco) led Breton to expel him from the Surrealist ranks. He moved to the USA in 1940 and remained there until 1955. During this time he devoted himself largely to self-publicity; his paintings were often on religious themes (The Crucifixion of St John of the Cross, Glasgow Art Gallery, 1951), although sexual subjects and pictures centring on his wife Gala were also continuing preoccupations.

Apart from painting, Dalí’s output included sculpture, book illustration, jewellery design, and work for the theatre. In collaboration with the director Luis Buñuel he also made the first Surrealist films—Un chien andalou (1929) and L’Age d’or (1930)—and he contributed a dream sequence to Alfred Hitchcock’s Spellbound (1945). He also wrote a novel, Hidden Faces (1944) and several volumes of flamboyant autobiography.

By 1929 Dali had found his personal style that should make him famous – the world of the unconscious that is recalled during our dreams. The surrealist theory is based on the theories of the psychologist Dr. Sigmund Freud. Recurring images of burning giraffes and melting watches became the artist’s surrealist trademarks. His great craftsmanship allowed him to execute his paintings in a nearly photo-realistic style. No wonder that the artist was a great admirer of the Italian Renaissance painter Raphael.

In 1980 Dali was forced to retire due to palsy, a motor disorder, that caused a permanent trembling and weakness of his hands. He was not able to hold a brush any more. The fact that he could not follow his vocation and passion of painting and the news of Gala’s death in 1982 left him with deep depressions.

After Gala’s death he moved to Pubol, a castle, he had bought and decorated for Gala. In 1984, when he was lying in bed, a fire broke out and he suffered sever burns. Two years later, a pacemaker had to be implanted.

Towards the end of his life, Dali lived in the tower of his own museum where he died on January 23, 1989 from heart failure.

Some trends in Dalí’s work that would continue throughout his life were already evident in the 1920s. Dalí devoured influences from many styles of art, ranging from the most academically classic, to the most cutting-edge avant garde. His classical influences included Raphael, Bronzino, Francisco de Zurbarán, Vermeer, and Velázquez. He used both classical and modernist techniques, sometimes in separate works, and sometimes combined. Exhibitions of his works in Barcelona attracted much attention along with mixtures of praise and puzzled debate from critics.

Late in his career, Dalí did not confine himself to painting, but experimented with many unusual or novel media and processes: he made bulletist works. Many of his works incorporated optical illusions, negative space, visual puns, and trompe l’oeil visual effects. He also experimented with pointillism, enlarged half-tone dot grids (which Roy Lichtenstein would later use), and stereoscopic images. He was among the first artists to employ holography in an artistic manner.  In his later years, young artists such as Andy Warhol proclaimed Dalí an important influence on pop art.

Dalí also had a keen interest in natural science and mathematics. This is manifested in several of his paintings, notably from the 1950s, in which he painted his subjects as composed of rhinoceros horn shapes. According to Dalí, the rhinoceros horn signifies divine geometry because it grows in a logarithmic spiral. He also linked the rhinoceros to themes of chastity and to the Virgin Mary.[29] Dalí was also fascinated by DNA and the tesseract (a 4-dimensional cube); an unfolding of a hypercube is featured in the painting Crucifixion (Corpus Hypercubus).

Dalí’s post–World War II period bore the hallmarks of technical virtuosity and an intensifying interest in optical effects, science, and religion. He became an increasingly devout Catholic, while at the same time he had been inspired by the shock of Hiroshima and the dawning of the “atomic age“. Therefore Dalí labeled this period “Nuclear Mysticism.” In paintings such as “The Madonna of Port Lligat” (first version) (1949) and “Corpus Hypercubus” (1954), Dalí sought to synthesize Christian iconography with images of material disintegration inspired by nuclear physics.[31] “Nuclear Mysticism” included such notable pieces as La Gare de Perpignan (1965) and The Hallucinogenic Toreador (1968–70).

Gala died on June 10, 1982, at the age of 87. After Gala’s death, Dalí lost much of his will to live. He deliberately dehydrated himself, possibly as a suicide attempt, or perhaps in an attempt to put himself into a state of suspended animation as he had read that some microorganisms could do. He moved from Figueres to the castle in Púbol, which he had bought for Gala and was the site of her death.


Dalí employed extensive symbolism in his work. For instance, the hallmark “soft watches” that first appear in The Persistence of Memory suggest Einstein‘s theory that time is relative and not fixed.[44] The idea for clocks functioning symbolically in this way came to Dalí when he was staring at a runny piece of Camembert cheese on a hot August day.

The elephant is also a recurring image in Dalí’s works. It first appeared in his 1944 work Dream Caused by the Flight of a Bee Around a Pomegranate a Second Before Awakening. The elephants, inspired by Gian Lorenzo Bernini‘s sculpture base in Rome of an elephant carrying an ancient obelisk,are portrayed “with long, multijointed, almost invisible legs of desire”[47] along with obelisks on their backs. Coupled with the image of their brittle legs, these encumbrances, noted for their phallic overtones, create a sense of phantom reality. “The elephant is a distortion in space”, one analysis explains, “its spindly legs contrasting the idea of weightlessness with structure.”I am painting pictures which make me die for joy, I am creating with an absolute naturalness, without the slightest aesthetic concern, I am making things that inspire me with a profound emotion and I am trying to paint them honestly.” —Salvador Dalí, in Dawn Ades, Dalí and Surrealism.

The egg is another common Dalíesque image. He connects the egg to the prenatal and intrauterine, thus using it to symbolize hope and love; it appears in The Great Masturbator and The Metamorphosis of Narcissus. The Metamorphosis of Narcissus also symbolized death and petrification.

Various other animals appear throughout his work as well: ants point to death, decay, and immense sexual desire; the snail is connected to the human head (he saw a snail on a bicycle outside Freud’s house when he first met Sigmund Freud); and locusts are a symbol of waste and fear.


References to Dalí in the context of science are made in terms of his fascination with the paradigm shift that accompanied the birth of quantum mechanics in the twentieth century. Inspired by Werner Heisenberg‘s Uncertainty Principle, in 1958 he wrote in his “Anti-Matter Manifesto”: “In the Surrealist period, I wanted to create the iconography of the interior world and the world of the marvelous, of my father Freud. Today, the exterior world and that of physics has transcended the one of psychology. My father today is Dr. Heisenberg.”

Endeavors outside painting

Dalí was a versatile artist. Some of his more popular works are sculptures and other objects, and he is also noted for his contributions to theatre, fashion, and photography, among other areas.

Besides visual puns, Dalí shared in the surrealist delight in verbal puns, obscure allusions, and word games. He often spoke in a bizarre combination of French, Spanish, Catalan, and English which was sometimes amusing as well as arcane.

Draft Research- The History of Image Acquisition

The History of Image Acquisition Timeline


▪    Ancient times- Even as far back as the Stone Age there is evidence of documentation through arts in their cave paintings. We can learn lots from these paintings, such as the hunting methods they used and religion.

▪    Egyptians- Documents such as the Book of the Dead kept knowledge in families and retained information for centuries to come.

▪    Camera obscuras used to form images on walls in darkened rooms; images formed via a pinhole

▪    16th century- Brightness and clarity of camera obscuras improved by enlarging the hole and inserting a telescope lens

▪    1664-1666
Isaac Newton discovers that white light is composed of different colors.

▪    1727-
Johann Heinrich Schulze discovers that silver nitrate darkened after exposure to light

▪    1800- Thomas Wedgwood makes “sun pictures” by placing opaque objects on leather treated with silver nitrate; resulting images deteriorated rapidly

▪       1816: Nicéphore Niépce combines the camera obscura with photosensitive paper

▪    1822 – Nicéphore Niépce takes the first fixed, permanent photograph, of an engraving of Pope Pius VII, using a non-lens contact-printing “heliographic process”, but it was destroyed later; the earliest surviving example is from 1825.

▪    1826 – Nicéphore Niépce takes the first fixed, permanent photograph from nature, a landscape that required an eight hour exposure.

▪    1835 – William Fox Talbot creates his own photographic process.

▪    1839 – Louis Daguerre patents the daguerreotype and takes the first photograph of a person

▪    1839 – William Fox Talbot invents the positive / negative process widely used in modern photography. He refers to this as photogenic drawing.

▪    1839 – John Herschel demonstrates hyposulfite of soda as a fixer, and makes the first glass negative.

▪    1851 – Introduction of the collodion process by Frederick Scott Archer.

▪    1855: Beginning of the stereoscopic era

▪    1861 – The first colour photograph, an additive projected image of a tartan ribbon, is taken by James Clerk Maxwell.

▪    1871: Richard Leach Maddox proposes the use of an emulsion of gelatin and silver bromide on a glass plate, the “dry plate” process.

▪    1876 – F. Hurter & V. C. Driffield begin systematic evaluation of sensitivity characteristics of photographic emulsions – science of sensitometry.

▪    1878 – Eadweard Muybridge makes a high-speed photographic demonstration of a moving horse, airborne during a trot, using a trip-wire system.

▪    1887 – Celluloid film base introduced.

▪    1888 – Kodak n°1 box camera is mass marketed; first easy-to-use camera containing a 20-foot roll of paper, enough for 100 2.5-inch diameter circular pictures.

▪    1888 – Louis Le Prince makes Roundhay Garden Scene, considered the first film ever made.

▪    1889: Introduction of nitrocellulate film photography lead to Improved Kodak camera with roll of film instead of paper

▪    1891 – William Kennedy Laurie Dickson develops the “kinetoscopic camera” while working for Thomas Edison.

▪    1898 – Kodak introduces their Folding Pocket Kodak.

▪    1900 – Kodak introduces their first Brownie.

▪    1901 – Kodak introduces the 120 film.

▪    1907: First commercial colour film, the Autochrome plates, manufactured by Lumiere brothers in France

▪    1908 – Kinemacolor, a two-color process that is the first commercial “natural color” system for movies, is introduced.

▪    1914 – The World, the Flesh and the Devil, the first dramatic feature film in Kinemacolor, is released.

▪    1921: Man Ray begins making photograms (“rayographs”) by placing objects on photographic paper and exposing the shadow cast by a distant light bulb;

▪    1925 – The Leica introduced the 35mm format to still photography.

▪    1927
General Electric invents the modern flash bulb.

▪    1931: Development of strobe photography by Harold Edgerton at MIT

▪    1932 – The first full-color movie, the cartoon Flowers and Trees, is made in Technicolor by Disney.

▪    1932 – First 8 mm amateur motion-picture film, cameras, and projectors are introduced by Kodak.

▪    1935 – Becky Sharp, the first feature film made in full color (Technicolor), is released.

▪    1936 – Introduction by IHAGEE of the Ihagee Kine Exakta 1, the first 35mm. Single Lens reflex camera. (kodachrome)

▪    1938- The first methods of photocopying are patented

▪    1939 – Agfacolor negative-positive color material, the first modern “print” film.

▪    1939 – The View-Master stereo viewer is introduced.

▪    1942 – Kodacolor, Kodak’s first “print” film.

▪    1947 – Dennis Gabor invents holography.

▪    1948 – The Hasselblad camera is introduced.

▪    1948 – Edwin H. Land introduces the first Polaroid instant image camera.

▪    1952 – The 3-D film craze begins.

▪    1954 – Leica M Introduced

▪    1957 – First digital image produced on a computer by Russell Kirsch at U.S. National Bureau of Standards

▪    1959 – AGFA introduces the first fully automatic camera, the Optima.

▪    1963
Polaroid introduces instant color film.

▪    1963- The Nikonos, the first purpose-built underwater is introduced

▪    1975- The first digital camera invented by Steve Sasson for Kodak

▪    1986 – Kodak scientists invent the world’s first megapixel sensor.

▪    1987- The popular Canon EOS system introduced, with new all-electronic lens mount

▪    1990- Adobe Photoshop released.

▪    1992- The introduction of the JPEG enables images to be viewed on the web

▪    2000: The first camera phone introduced in Japan by Sharp (J-Phone)

▪    2004: Kodak ceases production of all film cameras

▪    2008 – Polaroid announces it is discontinuing the production of all instant film products, citing the rise of digital imaging technology.

Research- Myths- Pandora’s Box

Pandora’s Box


Summary: A box given to Pandora, believed in Greek Mythology to be the first woman on Earth that contained all the evils of the world.

The creation of Pandora.

The story of Pandora was written around 800 BC. The myth dates back to the first centuries of humanity, just after the Titanomachy, the Great War between the Titans and the Olympians.

In classical Greek mythology, Pandora was the first woman on Earth. At one time the only mortals on the earth were men. Prometheus had made them, Athene had breathed life into them and Zeus did not like them.

One day Prometheus was trying to solve a quarrel between the gods and the men. At a festival the men were going to sacrifice a bull for the first time. They asked him which parts of the bull should be offered to the gods and which should be eaten by men. Prometheus decided to play a trick on Zeus. He killed the bull, skinned it and butchered it. He split it into two portions; in one he put the best, lean meat. In the second he put bones followed by a thick layer of fat. Prometheus offered both to Zeus to take his choice. Zeus looked at both portions; one looked good but was rather on the small side, the other was much larger and covered in a layer of fat, which Zeus felt must cover the best, tastiest portion of meat. He chose that one. When Zeus realised that he had been tricked he was furious. He took fire away from man so that they could never cook their meat or feel warm again.

Prometheus reacted immediately flying to the Isle of Lemnos where he knew the smith Hephaestus had fire. He carried a burning torch back to man. Zeus was enraged. He swore vengeance and started making an evil plan to essentially punish mankind.

 Zeus ordered Hephaestos (the god of craftsmanship) to create a clay woman with a human voice, who would be so dazzlingly beautiful she would be irresistible to both man and god. The Olympian Gods then gave gifts to Pandora; Aphrodite gave to her beauty, grace and desire. Hermes, the messenger god, gave her a cunning, deceitful mind and a crafty tongue. Athena clothed her and taught her to be deft with her hands. Poseidon gave her a pearl necklace that would prevent her from drowning. Apollo taught her to play the lyre and to sing. Zeus gave her a foolish, mischievous and idle nature and finally, Hera gave her curiosity. Her name, Pandora, in Greek means “the one who bears all gifts”

 Zeus was pleased with what he saw, but he had purposefully made her as a trap. He named the woman Pandora and sent her as a gift to Epimetheus. Epimetheus had been warned by his brother Prometheus that he should never accept gifts from Zeus because there would always be a catch. However because of Pandora’s irresistible beauty Epimetheus ignored his brother’s warning, fell in love with Pandora and married her.

To congratulate them, Hermes came to the wedding ceremony and told Epimetheus that Pandora was a gift from Zeus, a peace-offer signifying that there were no more ill feelings between the chief of the gods and Prometheus. He also told Epimetheus that the box of Pandora was a wedding gift from the Olympian King. Gods told her that the box contained special gifts from them.

 Pandora was given the instruction not to open the box under any circumstance. Overcome by her curiosity given to her by Hera, when left alone Pandora opened it, and all the evil contained inside the box escaped and spread over the earth- disease, despair, malice, greed, old age, death, hatred, violence, cruelty and war. She quickly closed the container, but it was too late as all of the contents had already escaped, except for one thing that lay at the bottom, the Spirit of Hope named Elpis.

 Pandora was saddened by what she had done, and was afraid that she would have to face Zeus’ wrath, as she felt she had failed her duty. However, Zeus did not punish Pandora, because he knew this would happen.

The details of this myth have been altered throughout time. This is very common for events that occurred so long ago, stories can be distorted through word of mouth and as we have no hard evidence it is hard to confirm what actually happened, hence the reason why Pandora’s Box is seen only as a myth. However, through art and various other methods of communication, for example the pottery below, people have been able to draw their own conclusions as to what happened. This is only one example of how art has been extremely important in the passing on of information through time.